MVSEG Bylaws



A California Nonprofit [Public Benefit] Corporation 


Section 1.01 Organic Structure. This corporation is a nonprofit, public benefit corporation and not for the private gain of any person. It has been incorporated for public charitable purposes under the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law. 

Section  1.02  Specific  Purposes  and  Objectives.  The  MAR  VISTA  SCHOOL  ENRICHMENT  GROUP (MVSEG) has been organized and formed for the specific purpose of raising funds to be  used  to  support  the  MAR  VISTA  ELEMENTARY  SCHOOL  (School),  which  is  a  public  elementary  school for grades TK through 5 in the Los Angeles Unified School District in Los Angeles,  California  (LAUSD).  MVSEG  will  coordinate  its  operations  and  objectives with the  School administration and Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and will work closely with them to identify appropriate areas for the Group’s assistance. These areas may include, but are not limited  to,  specialized  programs  such  as  computer  labs,  science  or  fine  arts  classes,  instructional  support  and  assistance,  additional  instructional  materials  and  aids,  materials and  the  projects.  All  funds  raised  by  the  organization  will  be  used  for  the  benefit  of  the  children  attending  the  School  and  will  be  applied  towards  the  costs  and  expenses  of achieving the objectives described above. 

Section 1.03 Principal Office. The principal office of this corporation for the transaction of its business shall be fixed and located at such place as the Board of Directors of this corporation shall  determine.  The  Board  of  Directors  is  granted  full  power  and  authority  to  change  the  location of the principal office. 

Section  1.04  Other  Offices.  This  corporation  may  also  have  offices  at  such  other  places,  within  or  without  the State of California, where it is qualified to do business, as its business may require and as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate. 


Section  2.01  Members.  The  members  (“Members”)  of  this  corporation  shall  consist  of  the  parent(s) or legal guardian(s) of children attending the School. No membership fees or dues shall  be  charged.  The  Secretary  of  this  corporation  shall  endeavor  to  keep  a  current list or  record  of all Members, together with addresses, phone numbers and email addresses if and as made available to the corporation.  

Section 2.02 Family Affiliation and Voting. For the purpose of  voting at the annual meeting of  Members  or  requesting  a  special  meeting  as  provided  in  Section  2.05,  the  parent(s)  and guardian(s)  of any child-student attending the School shall be considered collectively as one  (1) Member and shall have one (1) vote, regardless of the number of children in attendance at the  School  or  of  the  number  of  parents,  adults,  or  legal  guardians  in  the  family.  Each family/Member will be responsible for designating one of the parents or adults to vote on its behalf and for notifying the Secretary accordingly. Absent such designation, or in the event of any dispute, the determination of the Board of Directors, by a majority vote of those attending, shall be conclusive as to the Members’ voting designate.

 Section 2.03 Rights of Members. Members shall have the following rights: 

  • (a) Voting as set forth in Section 2.02;
  • (b). Attending  the  annual  meeting  and  any  special  meetings  of  Members  called  by  the Board;

    (c) Reviewing  the  articles  of  incorporation  and  bylaws of the corporation, as amended to date, upon reasonable notice and during business hours, except to the extent such would be related to any legal proceedings to which the corporation is a party and confidentiality is required by the corporation's attorneys; and

    (d). ,Any other rights conferred by law or these Bylaws.

Section 2.04 Annual Members’ Meeting. An annual meeting of Members shall be held for the purposes of organization, election of Directors and the transaction of other business. 

  • (a) Until changed by resolution duly adopted by the Board of Directors, this annual meeting
    shall be held without call or notice on the 3rd Thursday in April of each year at 6:45p.m. in the cafeteria of the School or at an agreed upon location within school boundaries, or concurrent with the date of the last meeting of the School PTA for the then-current school year.
  • (b) All  Members  and  non-Member  Directors  or  Officers    shall  be  entitled  to  attend  the Annual Members Meeting. At the Board of Director’s sole discretion and prior approval, non-members including the school principal, teachers, school staff and guests invited with prior approval of the Chairperson or the co-Presidents may attend the meeting. Only Members may vote at the meeting in accordance with Section 2.02, above. Either one-third (1/3) of the Members who appear of record with the Secretary’s membership roll or roster, or a majority of the then-constituted Board of Directors, whichever is less, shall constitute a quorum.

  • (c) Members shall be entitled to vote for Directors for the next fiscal year. The Board shall nominate at least as many candidates as there are serving Directors, and additional nominations may be taken from the floor, at the discretion of the Board.

    (d) All voting, including votes for Directors, may be either open or secret as the Board may determine by prior resolution or by majority vote of those attending. For any voting by secret ballot, the Directors shall establish procedures to effectuate such voting and shall appoint Officers or others to conduct the vote.

    (e) The  Chairperson  of the Board of this corporation shall endeavor to notify Members of the time and place of the annual meeting and of the names of nominated Directors as prescribed by applicable law, but a failure to comply with any notice requirements shall not affect the validity of actions taken at such meeting if Members receive actual notice thereof within 48 hours prior to such meeting. (changed to 48 hours vs “reasonable”)

    (f) There  shall  be  no  proxies.  All  votes  shall  be  made  by Members in actual attendance, and a majority of those present and voting on any matter shall be sufficient to approve such matter (including the election of Directors)

Section 2.05 Special Meeting of Members. Upon written request of (1) five percent (5%) of the Members  (voting  as  provided in Section 2.02), according to the Secretary’s Membership roll  or roster, or (2) a majority of the Directors, the Board of Directors shall call a special meeting of the Members.

  • (a) Such  meeting  shall  be  held  at  the  principal  office  of  this  corporation or as otherwise designated by the Board, at a time and date to be fixed by the Board.

  • (b) The  Chairperson  of  the  Board  shall  give  written  notice  to  all  Members  (notice to any member of a family will be considered notice to all members of that family) and to non-Member Directors and officers such that they receive actual notice thereof within 48 hours prior to such meeting. Notice shall include the time, date and place of the meeting and the matters to be considered.

  • The Members may at such special meeting vote to remove a Director, fill any vacancy in the Board of Directors, or amend the Bylaws, in accordance with such notice .

Section  2.06  Regularly  Scheduled  Business  Meetings  of  the  Corporation.  At  the  sole  discretion  of  the Board of Directors, the Corporation may hold regularly scheduled meetings to  review  its  general  business  and  activities.  At  the  Board’s discretion, attendance at these  meetings  will  be  open  to  Members,  the  School  principal,  teachers,  and  staff;  and  invited non-member guests. Attendance by non-member guests must be approved in advance by the Chairperson or one of the co-presidents.


Section 3.01 Number of Directors. The Board of Directors shall consist of not less than seven (7) nor  more  than thirteen (13) Directors until changed by amendment to these Bylaws. The exact  number  of  Directors  shall  be  fixed,  within  the  limits  specified  by  a  resolution  duly adopted  by  the  Board  of  Directors. A majority of Directors shall not be officers of either the Corporation  or  of  the  Mar  Vista  School  Parent-Teacher  Association  (PTA).  Of  the Corporation’s officers, the co-presidents, the secretary and the treasurer shall be elected from among  the  members  of  the  Board,  to  the  extent  that  there  are  enough  Directors  in total to maintain the majority described in the preceding sentence.

Section  3.02  Quorum.  A  majority  of  the  actively  serving  Directors,  under Section 3.01, shall  constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, except to adjourn as provided in Section 3.13.  A  meeting  at  which  a  quorum  is  initially  present  may  continue  to  transact  business  notwithstanding  the  withdrawal  of  Directors,  if  any  action  taken  is  approved  by  at  least  a majority of the required quorum for such meeting. 

Section  3.03 Powers of Directors. Subject to the Articles of Incorporation, other sections of  these  Bylaws and the California Nonprofit Corporation Law, the activities and affairs of this corporation  shall  be  conducted  and  all  corporate  powers  of  this  corporation  shall  be  exercised  by  and  under the direction of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may delegate  the  management  of  the  activities  of  this  corporation  to  any  person  or  persons,  management  company  or  committee  however  composed,  provided  that  the  activities  and affairs  of  this  corporation  shall  be  managed  and  all  corporate  powers  shall  be  exercised  under the ultimate direction of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors shall have the following powers: 

  • (a) To select and remove all Officers, agents and employees of this corporation, prescribe
  • such powers and duties for them as shall not be inconsistent with law, the Articles of Incorporation, or these Bylaws, and to fix their compensation and require from them security for faithful service and discharge of duty.
  • (b) To  conduct,  manage  and  control  the  affairs  and  activities of this corporation, and to make rules and regulations not inconsistent with law, the Articles of Incorporation, or these Bylaws.

    (c) To  borrow  money  and  incur  indebtedness  for  the  benefit  and  on  behalf  of  this corporation, and for that purpose to cause to be executed and delivered, in the corporate name, promissory notes, bonds, debentures, deeds of trust, mortgages, pledges, hypothecations or other evidence of debt and securities.

    (d) To adopt, make, and use a corporate seal, if required by resolution of the Directors, and to alter the form of such seal from time to time.

    (e). To  exercise  all  other  powers  which  a board of directors may by law exercise, limited only by the provisions of law, the Articles of Incorporation, and these Bylaws.

Section  3.04  Election  and  Term  of  Office.  The  term  of  office  for  each  Director  of  this  corporation shall be one (1) year from July 1 through June 30 the following year. Except as otherwise provided in this Article, each Director shall hold office until the expiration of his or her  term  and  until his or her successor is nominated, elected, and qualified. The successor  for any director shall be elected at the annual meeting of Members. A Director may succeed himself  or  herself  in  office.  All  terms  of  Directors  shall  run  concurrently  and  shall  not  be  staggered. By majority vote, the Directors will elect a Chairperson (who shall be a director but need  not  be  elected  as  an  officer)  to  preside  over  all  Board  and  Member  meetings  and  a  Secretary  to  record  the  minutes  thereof.  The  Chairperson  shall  perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned by these Bylaws or by the Board.  

Section 3.05 Qualifications of Directors. Each Director shall be an adult, natural person who, during  the  next-proceeding  school  year  after  election,  or,  if  appointed  or  elected  to  serve  during the remainder of a current term then during such current term, is a Member; provided, that,  if  approved  by resolution duly adopted by the Board of Directors, up to a maximum of  two (2) Directors may be non-Members.  

Until  rescinded  by  resolution  duly  adopted  by  the  Board  of  Directors,  one  of  the  Co-Presidents of the Mar Vista School Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), as determined by the PTA, shall serve as an ex-officio, voting member of the Board.  

If,  after  the  election  but  before  completion  of  term  of  office,  a  Director  who  must  be  a  Member ceases to meet this qualification, he shall, within thirty (30) days after notification to the  Board  of  such  circumstance,  resign  or  be  replaced  by  the  Board,  and  until  actually  replaced,  such  Director  shall  not  be  entitled  to  vote  or  to  be  counted  as  an  authorized Director for the purpose of a quorum unless required by law to be so.  

Section  3.06  Removal  of  Director.  Any  Director  may  be  removed  at  any  time  and  for  any  reason  or  no  reason,  by  a  majority  vote  of  Members  at  any  special  meeting  called  by  the Board for that purpose or in accordance with applicable law. To the extent permitted by law, a Director  may  be removed by a majority of the Board for habitual neglect of his or her duties 

(such  as  failure  to  attend  at  least  75%  of  the  meetings  of  the  Board  of  Directors  or  the  regularly scheduled business meetings of the corporation) or for conduct materially not in the best interests of this corporation. 

Section 3.07 Interested Persons. Not more than one-third (1/3) of the persons serving on the Board  of  Directors  shall  be  “interested  persons”  which for the purpose of this Section, shall  mean:  (i)  any  person  currently being compensated by this corporation for services rendered to  it  within  the  previous  12  months,  whether  as  a  full-  or  part-time  employee,  independent  contractor  or  otherwise,  excluding  any  reasonable  compensation  paid  to  a  Director  as  a Director;  and/or,  (ii)  any  brother,  sister,  ancestor,  descendant,  spouse,  brother-in-law,  sister-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, mother-in-law or father-in-law of any such person. 

Section 3.08 Vacancies. A vacancy or vacancies in the Board of Directors shall be deemed to exist in case of the death, resignation or removal of any Director or if the authorized number of Directors is increased by Board resolution or amendment of these Bylaws. 

  • (a) A vacancy or vacancies in the Board of Directors shall be filled by a majority vote of the remaining Directors then in office, or by the sole remaining Director. The Board may, by vote of a majority of Directors, call a special meeting of the Members to vote for a replacement. A successor Director so selected shall serve for the remainder of the predecessor’s term until a successor has been elected at the next annual meeting.

  • (b) Subject  to  the prohibition of Section 5226 of the California Nonprofit Corporation Law that the sole remaining Director may not resign except upon notice to the Attorney General, any Director may resign effective upon giving written notice to the Chairperson of the Board, the Co-Presidents, the Corporate Secretary or the Board of Directors, unless the notice specifies a later time for the effectiveness of such resignation. If the resignation is effective at a future time, a successor may be elected before such time, to take office when the resignation becomes effective.

  • (c) The  Board  of  Directors  may  declare  vacant  the  office  of  a  Director  who  has  been declared of unsound mind by a final order of court, convicted of a felony or found by a final order or judgment of any court to have breached any duty arising under Sections 5210 through 5260 of the California Nonprofit Corporation Law. Any reduction of the number of Directors authorized in these Bylaws shall not have the effect of removing any Director prior to the expiration of the Director's term of office.

    (d). Notwithstanding  anything  to  the  contrary  in  these Bylaws, by resolution duly adopted, the Board of Directors may appoint one (1) Alternate Director to serve as a Director at a particular meeting or as a Standing Alternate Director. (An Alternate Director must be a Member if the Director for whom the Alternate Director is acting is a Member.) An Alternate Director shall be entitled to attend a meeting of the Board and exercise all powers of a regular Director, if a regular elected Director is not able to attend such meeting. An Alternate Director may attend all meetings of the Board. Should a vacancy arise, the Alternate will fill the vacancy and a new Alternate will be elected by the same process as other Board vacancies (Section 3.08(a)).

Section 3.09 Place of Meetings. Meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at any place, within  or  without  the  State,  that  has been designated from time to time by resolution of the  Board.  In  the  absence  of  such  designation,  regular  meetings  shall  be  held  at  the  principal office  of  this  corporation.  Special  meetings  of  the  Board  may  be  held  either  at  a  place  designated for such meeting or at the principal’s office . 

Section  3.10  Regular  Meetings.  Regular  Meetings  of  the  Board  of  Directors  shall  be  held  without  call  or  notice  at  such  time  as  shall  from  time  to  time  be  fixed  by  the  Board  of Directors. 

Section 3.11 Special Meetings. 

  • (a) Special meetings of the Board of Directors for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the Board Chairperson, a Co-President, or any two (2) Directors.

  • (b) Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be given to each Director either (i) by written notice sent by first-class mail, charges prepaid, addressed to the address of such Director as shown on the records of the corporation, at least four (4) days before the date of the meeting, or (ii) by notice delivered personally or by telephone, email, text, or other similar means of communication at least 48 hours prior to the meeting.

  • (c). Notice by mail shall be deemed to have been given at the time it is deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid. Any other written notice shall be deemed to have been given when personally delivered to the recipient, delivered to a common carrier for transmission, or actually transmitted by the person giving the notice by electronic means. Oral notice shall be deemed to have been given when communicated in person or by telephone to the recipient.

Section  3.12  Waiver  of  Notice.  Notice  of  a  meeting  need  not  be  given  to  any  Director  who  signs a waiver of notice or a written consent to the holding of the meeting or an approval of the minutes thereof, whether before or after the meeting, or who attends the meeting without protesting,  prior  thereto  or  at  its  commencement,  the  lack  of  notice  to  such  Director.  The  transactions  of  any  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Directors,  however  called  and  noticed  and whenever held, shall be as valid-as though transacted at a meeting held after regular call and notice,  if  a  quorum  is present and if either before or after the meeting each of the Directors  not present signs a written waiver of notice or a consent to hold the meeting or an approval of the  minutes.  All  such  waivers,  consents  and  approvals  shall  be  filed  with  the  corporate  records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting. 

Section  3.13  Adjournment.  A  majority  of  the  Directors  present,  whether  or  not  a  quorum is  present, may adjourn any meeting to another time and place. Notice of the time and place of holding  an  adjourned meeting need not be given to absent Directors if the time and place is  fixed  at  the  meeting  adjourned,  unless  the  meeting  is  adjourned  for more than 24 hours, in which  event  notice  of  the  adjournment  to  another  time  or  place  shall  be  given  at  least  24  hours prior to the time of the adjourned meeting to the Directors who were not present at the time of adjournment. 

Section  3.14  Meeting  by  Telephone  Conference.  Members  of  the  Board  of  Directors  may  participate  in  a  meeting  by  telephone  call  or  similar  voice  communications  technology,  so long  as  all  members  participating  in  such  meeting  can  hear  one  another. Participation in a  meeting through telephonic means constitutes presence in person at such meeting.  

Section  3.15  Action  Without  a  Meeting.  Any  action required or permitted to be taken by the  Board of Directors may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board, not including any  “interested  director”  as  defined  in  Section  5233  of  the  California Nonprofit Corporation  Law,  shall  individually or collectively consent in writing to such action. Such written consent or consents shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the Board . 

Section  3.16  Right  of  Inspection.  Every  Director  shall  have  the  absolute  right  at  any  reasonable  time  to  inspect and copy all books, records and documents of every kind and to inspect the physical properties of the corporation. 

Section 3.17 Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution adopted by a majority of the number of Directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present, create one or more committees, each consisting of two (2) or more Directors, and delegate to such committees any of the authority of the Board, except with respect to: 

  • (i) Approval  of  any  action  for  which  the  California Non-profit Corporation Law also requires approval of the Members or approval of a majority of all Members;

  • (ii) Filling of vacancies on the Board or any committee;

  • (iii) Fixing compensation of the Directors for serving on the Board or on any committee;

  • (iv) Amendment or repeal of these Bylaws or the adoption of new Bylaws;

  • (v) Amendment or repeal of any resolution of the Board which by its express terms is not so amendable or repealable;

  • (vi) Appointment of other committees of the Board of the members thereof;

  • (vii) Expenditure  of  corporate  funds  to  support  a  nominee  for  Director  after there are more people nominated for Director than can be elected; or,

  • (viii) Approval  of  any  self-dealing  transaction  within  the  meaning  of  Section  5233(a)  of the California Nonprofit Corporation Law, except as provided in Section 5233(d)(3) of the California Non-profit Corporation Law.

Section 3.18 Compensation. The Board of Directors and all Officers of this corporation shall serve  without  compensation.  The  compensation,  if  any,  of  others  for  the  rendition  of  professional or other services shall be fixed by resolution duly adopted by the Board. 


Section 4.01 Officers. The Officers of this corporation shall be the two Co-Presidents, a VP of Communications,  a  Corporate  Secretary  (sometimes  referred  to  in  these  Bylaws  as  “Secretary”),  and  a Treasurer. The corporation also may have, at the discretion of the Board, any  such  other  Officers  as  may be designated by the Board and elected in accordance with  Section  4.02.  Officers  shall  be  Members,  unless  otherwise  determined  by  resolution  duly adopted  by  the  Board  of  Directors. Any number of offices may be held by the same person,  except that neither the Secretary nor the Treasurer may serve concurrently as the Chairperson of  the  Board  or  as  a  Co-President.  Of  the  Corporation’s  officers,  the  Co-Presidents,  the  Secretary  and  the  Treasurer  shall  be  members  of  the  Board,  to  the  extent  that  there  are enough Directors in total to maintain the majority described in Section 3.01. 

Section 4.02 Election. Officers shall be chosen annually by the Board of Directors and serve at the  pleasure  of  the  Board,  and  shall  hold  their  respective  offices  until  their  resignation,  removal or other disqualification from service, or until their term of office expires.  The term of office shall be from July 1 through June 30 the following year. 

Section 4.03 Removal and Resignation. 

  • (a) Any Officer may be removed, with or without cause, by the Board of Directors at any time, without prejudice to the rights, if any, the Officer may have under any contract of employment.

  • (b). Any officer may resign at any time by giving written notice to this corporation, but without prejudice to the rights, if any, the corporation may have under any contract to which the officer is a party. Any such resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of such notice or at any later time specified therein and, unless otherwise specified therein, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.

Section  4.04  Vacancies.  A  vacancy  in  any  office  because  of  death,  resignation,  removal,  disqualification or any other cause shall be filled by the Board of Directors. 

Section 4.05 (REMOVED) 

Section 4.06 Co-Presidents. Subject to such powers, if any, as may be given by the Board of Directors  to  the  Chairperson  of  the  Board,  the Co-Presidents shall be the general managers  and chief executive officers of this corporation with general supervision, direction and control of  the  business  and  Officers  thereof,  subject  to  the  direction  and control of the Board. The  Co-Presidents shall have the general powers and duties of management usually vested in the office  of  president/CEO  and  general  manager  of  a  corporation  and  shall  have  such  other  powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Co-Presidents must have been elected to the Board at the Annual Meeting. In  the  absence  of  the  Chairperson  at  a Board meeting, a Co-President shall preside at such  meeting and shall have all powers of the Chairperson to conduct business at such meeting. 

Section  4.07  VP  of  Communications.  The  VP  of  Communications  sends the agenda, sends  notice  of  the  general  meetings,  keeps  records  of  the  members  and  performs  such  other similar tasks as needed. Should both Co-Presidents be unable to perform their duties, the VP of Communications shall perform all the duties of the Co-Presidents and when so acting shall have all powers of the Co-Presidents. 

Section  4.08  Secretary.  The  Corporate  Secretary  shall  keep  or  cause  to  be  kept,  at  the  principal office or such other place as the Board may order, a full and complete record of all meetings  of  the  Board  and  its  committees.  The  Secretary  shall  also  tally  the  ballots  for  elections and keep the records of the results of such elections. The Secretary shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, or these Bylaws, including supervision of the Assistant Secretaries, if any. The Secretary shall keep or cause to be kept at the principal office in the State of California: 

  • (i) The  original  or  a  copy  of  this  corporation's  Articles  of  Incorporation  and  Bylaws,  as amended to date;

  • (ii) The  seal,  if  any,  of  this  corporation  in  safe  custody  (affixing  it  to  such  papers  and instruments as may be required in the regular course of business); and,
  • (iii)The records of this corporation

Section 4.09 Treasurer and Disbursements. Treasurer shall receive and safely keep all funds of  this  corporation  and  deposit  them  in  the  bank  or  banks  that  may  be  designated  by  the  Board of Directors. Those funds shall be paid out only on checks of the corporation and must be signed by two (2) of the following officers:  a Co-President, the Treasurer, or the Secretary.  The  Board  of  Directors  may  by  duly  adopted  resolution  designate  such  other  officers  who may  be authorized to sign such checks. The Treasurer  shall keep and maintain, or cause to  be  kept  and  maintained,  adequate  and  correct  accounts  of  the  properties  and  business transactions  of  this  corporation.  The  Treasurer  shall  have  such  other  powers  and  perform  such other duties as may be prescribed from time to time by the Board of Directors. 


Section 5.01 By Board. These Bylaws may be amended or repealed and new Bylaws adopted by the vote of and resolution duly adopted by a majority of the Board of Directors. 

Section  5.02  By  Members.  The  Members  at  the  annual  Members’  meeting  or  any  special  meeting  called  for  that  purpose  may  by  majority  vote  of  those  present  (where  a  quorum exists) amend these Bylaws. 


Section  6.01  Statutory  Indemnity. This corporation shall and hereby does indemnify its  Directors,  Officers  and  employees  to  the  fullest  extent  permitted  by  the  California Nonprofit Corporation Law, including without limitation the provisions of section 5238 of the California Corporations Code which are incorporated into these Bylaws. 

Section 6.02 Indemnity of Fiduciaries. This corporation shall have the power to indemnify any trustee,  investment  manager  or  other  fiduciary  of  an  employee  benefit  plan  to  the  extent  permitted by Section 207(f) of the California General Corporation Law. 


Section 7.01 Authority to Bind the Corporation. 

     (a) Subject to the provisions of applicable law, any  note,  mortgage,  evidence  of  indebtedness,  contract,  conveyance  or  other  instrument  in  writing,  and  any  assignment  or  endorsement  thereof,  executed or entered into between this corporation  and  any  other  person,  when  signed  by  the  following  Directors  and/or  Officers shall be valid and binding on the corporation, in the absence of actual knowledge on the part of the other person that the signing Officer lacked authority to execute such instrument: 

  • (1) The Chairperson of the Board or a Co-President;

  • (2) The VP of Communications and the Secretary; or

  • (3) The Treasurer and the Secretary.

(b) Any  such  instrument may be signed by any other person or persons and in such manner as from time to time shall be determined by the Board, and, unless so authorized in writing by the Board, no Officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind this corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or amount.

 Section  7.02  Representation.  The  Chairperson  of the Board or a Co-President, or such other  Officers as the Board of Directors may authorize for that purpose, are each authorized to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of this corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this corporation. The authority granted  in these Bylaws to any Officer to vote or represent this corporation arising from any  shares held by this corporation in any other corporation or corporations may be exercised either  by  the  Officer  in  person  or  by  any  person  authorized  so  to  do  by  proxy  or  power  of  attorney duly executed by such officer. 

                                                                      [End of Bylaws]   

                                                       As Adopted Date January 16, 2020